Not a breath of air… The pedantic fly that defiles everything sits on your cock drinking your sap. The watermelon-man passes with his megaphone. The afternoon at my feet like a severed head. El calor. En el calor de Grecia nuestros esternones empujaron juntos y chorreaban de agua.
But the little loves that for only one second made you look up high with heavenly familiarity while some unruly leafy plant a giggle, a glance made you forget the evergreen thorns of cactus time. Little love of the last minute, lean on a shoulder fanatically mortal lean on the cenotaph of dreams.
Epilogue Wind. The wind lifts our sins into the air, whirls them around for awhile high above our idiotic schemes, and lets them fall again to earth where they blossom. It gathers up the little words still damp, you over there, come here, and places them on the tops of optimistic trees, then spreads them on the ground like dried souvenirs of nothing. The wind lifts the torn leaves of a short novella and as they rise up, the page of our life becomes legible, to be read someday in the future like the meaning that is given to us whole.
Pues las extiende en el suelo como souvenires secos de nada. Katerina Anghelaki-Rooke wrote her first poem at the age of She studied at universities in Greece, France and Switzerland. Toggle navigation Home. Contact Copyright Privacy. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. About Books Del Sur. Dois proveitos em um saco Portuguese Edition. Grades Rosa alada Ya no soy tu amiga. The way you care Roda abajo con pies tumefactos.
Highlights; Ivo Ledo - AbeBooks! Grades — Tagged "THEME: Culture" — Books del Sur It gathers up the little words still damp, you over there, come here, and places them on the tops of optimistic trees, then spreads them on the ground like dried souvenirs of nothing. Share this: Email Print Twitter Facebook. In the years of the French Revolution, such procedures morphed into Descriptive Geometry, a science that deals with a wide range of geometric problems, both practical and theoretical.
This chapter includes a synchronic presentation of these practices and a diachronic survey of its evolution from the Late Middle Ages to the Enlightenment, finishing with a discussion of the relevance of this field in treatises and didactic practice. Rather than its use in such military construction members as rere-arches, skew arches or stairways, the reason for the importance granted to stereotomy in military construction is to be found in its role in the education of the spatial vision of the engineer.
Engineering, fortification, stonecutting, masonry, stereotomy, drawing, projection, orthographic. These tracings are prepared in order to control the execution of such architectural members as arches, vaults or stairs, using templates taken from full-size drawings [FIGS.
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The subject may seem elementary at first sight. It is an application of drawing in plan and elevation, which was explained in the booklets by Mathes Roriczer or the well-known letter by Rafaello and Baldassare Castiglione to Leon X2.
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However, the execution of stonecutting pieces goes further that simple orthogonal projection. First, once their construction is finished, the elevations of Rafaello and Castiglione can be understood as autonomous documents, independent from the plan.
By contrast, stonecutting tracings usually show the plan and the elevation tightly interconnected, since both are necessary in order to understand the complex geometry of the voussouirs of these members. However, this method brings about a great loss of labour and material; most writers suggest the systematic use of templates [FIG. Intrados faces of arches are frequently dressed using templates whose edges represent two consecutive intrados joints and the chords of the face arches that connect them.
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Such templates are meant to be placed on a planar surface, and thus they can be materialised in wood. As a consequence, the templates do not represent the actual intrados surface, but rather a polyhedral surface inscribed in the interior of the arch. The geometrical construction of these templates is solved usually employing rotations about the intrados joints, known as rabattements in nineteenth century descriptive geometry; triangulations are used in some complex problems5. This method can be applied to hemispherical domes, and in fact a number of writers suggest their use when dealing with oval vaults; however, treatises explain a different method for the dressing of domes and sail vaults.
A number of cones, rather. These cones offer two advantages: they furnish a fair approximation to the spherical intrados surface, and can be developed using the simple method that was taught at elementary schools a few decades ago, in contrast with the spherical surface, which is non-developable. Next, the stonemason should apply the template to the spherical surface, maFIG. Templates for hemispherical and oval domes. Since this template represents a conical surface, it cannot be materialised in wood; Josep Gelabert suggests the use of paper or cardboard, cloth, or other materials6.
This idea is applied gradually to arches, in particular the ones in curved walls, where rigid templates are not very useful when controlling the edge between the intrados surface and the faces of the arch; by contrast, flexible templates [FIG. Although treatises explain the squaring and templates methods separately, in actual practice both may be used at the same time [FIG. In a number of complex pieces, the stonemason proceeds from the initial box-like enclosing block to an intermediate volume dressed using auxiliary templates; then, wedges are taken from the intermediate solid in order to arrive at the final shape of the voussoir.
In other cases, voussoirs are dressed by squaring, but the mason determines also the angle between intrados and face joints, which are transferred to the stone by FIG. Templates for the dressing of voussoirs in an arch opened in a curved wall. Some details in Renaissance stonecutting texts hint that these geometrical operations were performed usually not in ordinary drawings, but rather in full-size tracings executed in floors or walls.
A fair number of these full-size tracings, ranging from the Hellenistic period to the Enlightenment, have been preserved in temples, cathedrals, churches and monasteries. In some occasions, dedicated rooms, called trasurae, casas de la traza or tracing houses were set apart for this purpose. These tracings are more scarce in military constructions, maybe because their wall surfaces and floors have been renovated more frequently; however, the tracing for an arch [FIG.
Generally speaking, such tracings are extremely economic. Its easy to understand that to execute them on all fours or on a loose scaffolding is not easy. This extreme austerity makes the interpretation of tracings quite difficult in some occasions, and also highlights another essential trait: these full-size drawings are introspective by nature. They are not meant to convey instructions from the designer to the actual executors, but rather to help the head stonemason to determine the real shape and size of some elements that are usually deformed in orthogonal projection, such as the shapes of voussoir faces or the angles between their edges In other terms, these drawings are not a means of representation in the strict sense, but rather a method for the resolution of geometrical problems.
Since full-size tracings were used as a formal control method in stonecutting, rather than scale drawings, we may surmise that they offer substantial advantages. First, they furnish a much higher precision than drawings on paper, avoiding the errors associated with scale changes in execution Thus, stonemasons, architects and engineers transformed gradually an FIG. Anyhow, the formation of this system was not immediate, and the leading role in this field of knowledge shifted from stonemasons and architects to clerics and military engineers, while the empirical paradigm of the first phases evolved into the conception of this discipline as an exact science; we shall deal with this evolution in the next section An unknown draughtsman, dubbed as Hand IV by Barnes, interpolated some schemata in a few sheets of the portfolio of Villard de Honnecourt.
Two of them have been identified by Branner, Lalbat et al. If such hypotheses are right, the voussoirs are to be dressed by squaring, maybe with the help of a sauterelle However, they furnish valuable information on the evolution of orthogonal projection, explaining that the stonemason is to construct an elevation around a symmetry axis, tracing orthogonals to the axis that stand for horizontal planes. Next, the mason should bring horizontal measures from the plan to these horizontal lines, guaranteeing the coherence between plan and elevation.
Full-size tracing of the vault in the sacristy of the cathedral of Murcia, In each quarter of the vault, tiercerons and liernes should meet in space in a secondary boss; if not, the tiercerons would pass over the liernes, or the other way around, with catastrophic results. The wall arch is placed in its natural position, while the lierne is projected on the vertical wall plane, and the diagonal ribs and tiercerons are rotated around the vertical axis that passes through the springer Transferring this angular measure to the saltarregla, he can improve the control of the dressing process by the squaring method.
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When using plantas al justo, that is, full templates, the problem involves the rotation of the entire template, a method known in nineteenth century Descriptive Geometry treatises as rabattement. When the intrados joint is orthogonal to the face arch, the mason can solve the problem easily, transferring the distance between two consecutive intrados joints, taken from the elevation, to the template By contrast, when the intrados joint is oblique, the problem is not so simple.
As for flexible templates for spherical or torus surfaces, they are completely lacking in the early sixteenth century stonecutting tracings in Murcia cathedral [FIG. They are. In any case, along the sixteenth century this subject is under the command of stonemasons and architects, or more precisely, a peculiar group between both professions. This practice does not exclude the interest of architects in this matter; Alonso de Vandelvira lent a copy of his manuscript to Juan de Valencia; after the death of the latter, he supposed it was in the hands of Juan de Herrera, Francisco de Mora or Juan de Vega The borderline position of this group of professionals did not make their life easy.
In , Pedro de Velasco tried to exclude Rojas from the decisions about fortification arguing that he was just a stonemason; however, in , Rojas reversed the argument showing with pride his building experience, which granted him authority to give his opinion in constructive matters Otherwise the architect would be at the orders of the workmen, which would be tantamount to placing the cart before the horses That is, a new form of knowledge is appearing, using classical science in order to solve practical problems, in contrast with Antique and Mediaeval science, that usually do not seek their application to practical problems This program, favoured by the Spanish crown in the last decades of the sixteenth century, will be developed slowly; the cycle will be closed not in Spain, but rather in FIG.
Continental Europe. Other texts, such as Ms. However, the lack of didactic intentions in Guardia or Ms. Although it is not a specialised stonecutting manual, but a general architectural treatise, it includes two full books, about pages, to stonecutting; this allows a comprehensive and detailed approach to our subject, in contrast with Rojas This silence was broken in , when Girard Desargues, a bourgeois from Lyons, amateur architect and precursor of Projective Geometry, published a leaflet offering a general method for the resolution of all stonecutting problems [FIG.
The masons of Paris responded violently against this interference from a stranger to the craft; Jacques Curabelle, the best stonecutter of the period, published pamphlets with such Baroque titles as Foiblesse pitoyable du sr G. The confrontation brought about a remarkable contest: two teams of stonemasons, directed by Desargues and Curabelle, were to build arches according to the methods of their leaders.
The winners were to receive a substantial prize of one hundred pistoles At the end the competition did not take place, since the contestants did not agree in the rules or the jury.
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Desargues argued with scorn that geometricians should not be judged by masons; quite to the contrary, the geometricians are the masters and the masons the disciples. However, this failed duel indicates a change of paradigm: for Desargues the criterion of the validity of stonecutting methods does not lie in the apparent perfection of the final built piece, but rather in the mathematical correction of the methods used in its execution.
The consequences of this paradigm shift were felt slowly, although gradually. The confrontation led to the appearance of three stonecutting treatises in a few years. Templates, voussoirs and interior space in an arch opened in a curved wall. Arches opened in curved walls. Only in the second and third volumes he explains actual stonecutting problems, placed under the heading of tomotechnie.
In this way, the discipline is put under the rule of geometry, including demonstrations for each particular problem, in contrast with previous treatises. He accepts that this procedure has some advantages, since it shows clearly the connections. His procedure was not restricted to stonecutting, not even to construction. Rather, he presented it FIG. Projection planes, ground line and projections of a straight line. Only when adding a second projection, we can determine unambiguously this point; the passage suggests implicitly that the striking auxiliary projections used by stonecutters are unnecessary While double projection, as used up to this period, allows to determine the position of a point in relation to other objects, the ground line furnishes a method for computing the absolute position of a point.
At the same time, it fixes in space the position of both projection planes; this allows the draughtsman to represent any plane through its intersections with the projection planes The use of planes is not really very useful in stonecutting tracings; up to this moment, nobody has built a plane or a straight line, but rather finite elements. In this way Monge implies a subtle inversion of the concepts used in our subject up to this moment; the introvert drawing of stonemasons, timely transferred to scientific language, comes second, while pride of place is taken by the transmission of the orders from the engineer to the executors.
Anyhow, we shall deal with the reasons of this evolution, in particular with the exclusion of perspectives, both lineal and cavalier, from the education of engineers, in the next section. As shown by Alonso et al. That is, writers consider that orthogonal projections and its auxiliary methods — rotations, developments, and the like — are quite useful for the determination of the true shapes of voussoir faces or the angles between their edges, but they do not show intuitively the volume of construction members or their parts. This mission is entrusted to cavalier or linear perspectives.
Probably Monge and his aides understood that orthogonal projections were sufficient to show the volumetric structure of these members, or maybe they were trying to put pressure on students so they could read easily plans and elevations showing complex forms Anyway, some details hint that Monge was not the first one to tread that path.