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At the same time in parapsychological research anomalous PK phenomena become rare and weak, and have shrinked to minor statistical mean value deviations and micro- PK effects in large databases containing abstract columns of numbers. It is required to run tens of thousands, even hundreds of thousands of experiments before any significance becomes apparent. The days of flying monks and PK-moved objects are over. Why did the effects loose their impressive strength? Were they all the result of fraud? But this is only one interpretation. It is the aim of this presentation to introduce another interpretation: increasing skepticism for itself might be the reason for the erosion of evidence.
Robert G. Le Program Director est Robert G. Jahn, et la Laboratory Manager Brenda J. The effect size of one bit in every 10, which could be changed by the test subject in the intended direction appeared to be reliable and leading to the expectation that psychokinesis really exists as an anomalous, replicable phenomenon.creatoranswers.com/modules/gregg/chica-busca-sexo-por.php
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Il est aussi auteur et co-auteur de plus de articles de journaux et rapports techniques en lien avec la parapsychologie. After sixty years of experiments using tossed dice and their modern progeny, electronic RNGs, researchers have produced persuasive, consistent, replicated evidence that mental interaction is associated with the behavior of these physical systems Radin, , p. This leads to the expectation that PK effects could be easily reproduced with a large number of tries and test subjects. In the Fourmilab Retro-Psychokinesis Project was founded, an internet based psychokinesis experiment which opened the possibility for interested test persons all around the world to take part in the PK experiment.
But the still ongoing Fourmilab Retro-Psychokinesis Project failed in generating significant mean shift deviations in the overall summary. Instead of it the actual overall z reached a non significant level of PK experiments. What, then, could be more disappointing than to discover in the years that followed that the large-scale replication test performed by the MMI consortium was neither able to confirm the effect size that had previously been established nor to attain the level of significance which was to be expected on the basis of the tests run previously Jahn et al.
This disappointment certainly fed the skeptical suspicion that anomalous psychokinesis effects do not exist Alcock, However, according to Walter von Lucadou there would have been in fact no real reason to be disappointed, if the MMI consortium had applied his model of pragmatic information to the replication and the formulation of the effect size expectation. His model predicts that decline effects must arise in future replications Lucadou, Is the model of pragmatic information convincing enough to reject any skeptic objection?
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The model of pragmatic information MPI is a theoretical approach predicting such declining effects in psychokinesis experiments. It is not yet a complete and finalised theory, merely a model which seeks to describe with analogies the conditions in which an anomalous effect might be expected. This is irrelevant to any temporal or spatial distances, it is a non-local analogy to non-local effects in quantum mechanics Lucadou, Its boundaries are defined by the ratio of internal and external pragmatic information in the interaction of its constituent parts.
Telepathie: Coincidence ou coincidence programmée?
However, the situation becomes more critical when such non-local correlations are supposed to be used for long-distance transfer of information or signals. The possibility of intervention paradoxes prohibits such an information transfer: it would be a serious violation of natural laws. If I know what will happen in the future I can act in the present in such a way that I can prevent unpleasant future events occurring.
Pragmatic information I which a system produces, is in itself the product of further factors which exclude the possibility of using pragmatic information for signal transfer: An event with the character of novelty happens unexpected and suddenly, it cannot be the basis of signal transfer. An event which acts with autonomy cannot use for signal transfer too. These factors of pragmatic information exist in opposites: Novelty E vs.
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Confirmation B. Reliability R. Lucadou, These factors are responsible for the decline effects observed in the replication experiments, because the novelty declines when repeated tests are run to reproduce such effects. At the same time, the autonomy is limited, since one possible test result is already available as a result of the pilot experiment. In order to enable a repetition of a high degree of novelty, the effect must emerge either elsewhere in a replication where it is expected, or it must change its effect size or direction.
MPI provides the possibility of conceptual replications with high degrees of novelty and autonomy.
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Identical replications have to fail: if they are successful they could be used for signal transfer which would violate the excluding of intervention paradoxies. After all, with such a model the results of random experiments can be described. Can meaningful research activities be conducted at all under such conditions? The time serial analysis of the experimental data with respect to lunar phase was published in the year Etzold, Was it an anomaly or just a coincidence? After the publication in I made a replication of my first analysis with the next 47, experimental data which were accumulated in the Fourmilab Retro-PK data base until August This time I was doubtful about the outcome of the analysis.
I could not believe that the observed lunar effect was persistent enough for replication MPI for example forecasts a decline effect for the new evaluation. Now I got a negative z-value of The MPI … does not state that, if the experiment were to be repeated, the effect that had been established earlier would simply disappear, since it was merely a random fluctuation.
Under MPI, it either disappears slowly, something which one would not normally expect to occur with a random fluctuation, or it overturns as was the case in the Etzold study , or it appears in other channels, as occurred during the large-scale MMI replication experiment Jahn et al. In a somewhat schematised form, three possibilities therefore emerge under MPI for an anomalous effect during replication:.