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For biography and criticism see the following works: A. Strodtmann, Heines Leben und Werke 3rd ed. Hueffer, Aus dem Leben H.

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Heines ; and by the same author, H. Karpeles, H. Heine und seine Zeitgenossen , and by the same author, H. Heine: aus seinem Leben und aus seiner Zeit ; W. Brandes, Det unge Tyskland ; Eng. An English biography by W. Stigand, Life, Works and Opinions of Heinrich Heine , appeared in , but it has little value; there is also a short life by W.

Sharp The best French contributions to Heine criticism are J. Legras, H. Lichtenberger, H. Heine, penseur See also L. Betz, Heine in Frankreich He studied theology at Leipzig, and law at Halle; and at the latter university he was appointed in professor of philosophy, and in professor of jurisprudence.

He subsequently filled legal chairs at F raneker in Holland and at Frankfort, but finally returned to Halle in as professor of philosophy and jurisprudence.

He died there on the of August Heineccius belonged to the school of philosophical jurists. He endeavoured to treat law as a rational science, and not merely as an empirical art whose rules had no deeper source than expediency. Thus he continually refers to first principles, and he develops his legal doctrines as a system of philosophy.

His chief works were Antiquitatum Romanarum jurisprudential illustrantium syntagrna , Historia juris ewilis Romani ae Germaniei , Elementa juris Germaniei , Elementa juris naturae et gentium ; Eng. Besides these works he wrote on purely philosophical subjects, and edited the works of several of the classical jurists. His Opera omnia 9 vols. Heineccius's brother, Johann Michael Heineccius , was a well-known preacher and theologian, but is remembered more from the fact that he was the first to make a systematic study of seals, concerning which he left a book, De veteribus Germanorum aliaruntque nalionum sigillis Leipzig, ; 2nd ed, Able to speak at the age of ten months, by the time he was one year old he knew by heart the principal incidents in the Pentateuch.

At two years of age he had mastered sacred history; at three he was intimately acquainted with history and geography, ancient and modern, sacred and profane, besides being able to speak French and Latin; and in his fourth year he devoted himself to the study of religion and church history. This wonderful precocity was no mere feat of memory, for the youthful savant could reason on and discuss the knowledge he had acquired.

When his father's business failed, Heine was sent to Hamburg, where his rich banker uncle Salomon tried to encourage him into a commercial career, without success. Hegel, who delivered there his celebrated lectures on the philosophy of history, the philosophy of religion, aesthetics, and the history of philosophy. In order to make possible a civil service career, closed to Jews at that time, Heine converted to Protestantism.

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He also changed his first name from Harry to the more Germanic Heinrich. However, he never practised or held a position in government service. Gedichte , with which Heine made his debut as a poet, includes one of his most popular poems, 'Zwei Grenadiere', which reflected Heine's passion for Napoleon.

Heine's one-sided infatuation with his cousins Amalie and Therese inspired him to write some of his loveliest lyrics. Buch der Lieder was Heine's first comprehensive collection of verse; some two-thirds of its poems had appeared in periodicals and his , and anthologies.

His writing is always easy-going, his obvervations are meticulously formulated and ordered.

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In Heine visited England, from where he returned disappointed and horrified by formality of behaviour and bourgeois materialism. Heine's summer trips produced the basis for his four volumes of Reisebilder , a combination of autobiography, social criticism, and literary debate. In the third volume Heine satirized the poet August von Platen, who had attacked him on his Jewish origins.

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This act damaged Heine's reputation, and in he went to Paris as a journalist, to write newspaper articles about the development of democracy and capitalism in France. Mathilde was a spendthrift but during Heine's eight-year-long illness she nursed him faithfully and tenderly. Heine wrote some poems for Mathilde, but they are not among his best. In Paris Heine reported on French cultural and political affairs, wrote travel books and works on German literature and philosophy, besides publishing poetry.

Multi-volumed work

At that time, Paris was the cradle of new ideas: Victor Hugo had published Notre Dame de Paris , Balzac's and George Sand's first novels had appeared, Delacroix and Delaroche were the centers of art salons. Heine's critical views annoyed the German censors, and he had no chance of becoming a prophet in his own country.

At the end of the Federal German Diet tried to enforce a nationwide ban on all his works.

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Soon Heine found himself surrounded by police spies, and his voluntary exile became a forced one. The poet once stated: "When the heroes go off the stage, the clowns come on. This attack on reactionary circles, the political order of the Metternichtian system, was written during his months of friendship with the young Karl Marx. Near the end of the poem, the patron goddess of Hamburg, reveals a vision of Germany's future to the poet-narrator in a chamber pot. Heine's efforts as a novelist mostly failed. Der Rabbi von Bacherach , which he began in , was published in part in In this multi-layered fictional memoir a young Polish recalls his life in Germany and the Netherlands.

Heine's ironic twist in the folk legend of the Dutchman was "Mrs. Flying Dutchman", who breaks the curse of eternal wandering. Heine's uncle died in and left him a small pension; he also accepted a pension from the French government. After he suffered financial reversals and a physical deterioration. From until his death Heine lay paralyzed, partly blind and heavily sedated on his "mattress grave", but wrote one of his finest collection of verse, Romanzero Heine's closest friend was his publisher, Julius Campe , whom he both praised and berated.

The proposal for the title of Romanzero came from Campe, who promoted the collection with great success. Vor vierzehn Tagen war ich bei ihm, da lag er im Bett und hatte einen Nervenanfall gehabt. During his last years Heine was interested in combining elements of Christianity and aesthetic paganism.