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Lisboa: Centro de Filosofia da Universidade de Lisboa. Logic, Norms and Ontology. Content and Cognition ed. Lisboa: Gradiva.
The Foundations of Cognitive Science ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Revista Semestral de Filosofia. Oxford, UK: University of Oxford.
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The Need for Indexical Sinn. London: College Publications. Nota sobre o Argumento da Escolha Criteriosa. In Filosofia da Linguagem, ed. ISBN: Homenagem a Leonel Ribeiro dos Santos. Rio de Janeiro: Vozes.
Estado de Coisas. De Se. Necessidade da Identidade. Propriedade Cambridge. Argumento da Catapulta. Gomes, 11 - Lei da Identidade. Identidade Relativa. Atitude Proposicional. Dictum de Omni et Nullo. Teoria das Contrapartes. Sense and Meaning. In Content and Cognition, ed. ISBN: X. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional - Casa da Moeda.
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Contra o Materialismo. Sobrevive o Descritivismo Actualizado aos Argumentos Modais?. In The Foundations of Cognitive Science, ed. On the Individuation of Fregean Propositions. In Analytic Philosophy and Logic, ed. Kanamori, 17 - In Sentido que a Vida Faz. Porto: Campo das Letras. In A Cultura da Subtileza, ed. Homenagem a Oswaldo Market. Carrilho, - Lisboa: Dom Quixote. Edmundo Curvelo.
Lisboa, - Lisboa: Verbo. In Ao Encontro da Palavra. Homenagem a Manuel Antunes, - Lisboa: Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa. Branquinho, J. Centro de Filosofia da Universidade de Lisboa. Revista de Fenomenologia , - Branquinho, Joao. Branquinho, J.. Lisboa: Cosmos. In other words, the Himalayan Mountains appear limitless merely in a direct perception, as its size strikes our eyes, but not in a logical estimation of its size, since we can always measure it by choosing an appropriate unit.
The same can be said for objects that are typical examples of formlessness such as the starry sky.
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Even though it is perceptually impossible to comprehend the size of the starry sky, a logical calculation of its. I take it that acts of apprehension and comprehension are identical to acts of the synthesis of apprehension.
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This identification has also been suggested by Kirk Pillow , p. Similar is the case of the dynamically sublime objects. We can always measure the power of natural objects, say, the magnitude of an earthquake on the Richter scale, or the strength of the hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane scale. In a logical estimation of the size or the power of the object the imagination and understanding stand in a harmonious relation. The imagination successfully synthesizes the sensible manifold as determined by the numerical concepts of the understanding.
However, in aesthetic estimation of the size or power of the object i. Nonetheless, there is still a demand for the imagination to synthesize the sensible manifold and present it as a unified whole. This demand is given to the imagination by the faculty of reason :. Thus, the failure of the imagination to synthesize the sensible manifold in one intuition is a failure of satisfying the faculty of reason.
It is the disharmony between imagination and reason that produces the displeasure felt in the sublime. On the other hand, the fact that imagination fails to satisfy the task given to it by reason i. The awareness of. The sublime is a feeling of inadequacy of our physical and sensible nature, yet at the same time a recognition of the value of reason and our ability to think beyond the sensibly given. The sight of an erupting volcano arouses in us the feeling of terror and fear due to our inability to control the physical force of nature. The feeling of fear leads us to the negative feeling value realization that as physical beings we are imperfect, helpless and subjected to merciless forces of nature.
But it is this realization that also awakens in us the idea of a moral supremacy over nature, namely, that in spite of our physical vulnerability we stand morally firm against the greatest power of nature. Our ability to think of ourselves as morally independent of nature and thereby able to surpass our fears of mortality, sickness, and other negative aspects tied to our physical nature, produces in us a feeling of respect for ourselves as rational and moral beings.
One can see that in contrast to beauty and ugliness, sublimity is not attributed to the object itself, but rather to the power of our mind. The fact that sublimity is attributed to subjects rather than objects does not exclude the importance of the. For example Clewis ,. However, if it is merely rational ideas that invoke the sublime, then it is difficult to explain the source of the feeling of displeasure in the sublime. The object is required for the experience of perceptual and imaginative failure.
That is, the feeling of pleasure in the sublime reveals the purposiveness of the subject for the faculty of theoretical and practical reason and its supersensible ideas of infinity and freedom respectively. This contrasts with the feeling of pleasure in the beautiful object, which reveals the purposiveness of the object for our cognitive abilities of imagination and understanding. The distinction between the two ways that purposiveness can be exhibited is mentioned by Kant in the following:.
While beauty reveals the objects purposiveness for our cognitive abilities, the sublime, on the other hand, reveals the purposiveness of the subject for the faculty of reason. However, it is not merely the subjective purposiveness of the judging subject that the sublime reveals. Accordingly, it is the disagreement between the imagination and faculty of reason that reveals the presence of reason and which brings with it the feeling of pleasure:.
The essential role of the object for the sublime is also emphasized by Deligiorgi The very act of disagreement between imagination and reason is an act of their agreement. Thus, the sublime does not merely reveal the purposiveness of the judging subject, but also his contrapurposiveness. One can see that the feeling of displeasure and pleasure in the sublime are intrinsically connected. They have the same source and one cannot separate them. The feeling of the sublime is not an independent feeling of pain and positive pleasure, but rather pleasure is present in displeasure.
That is, the same contrapurposiveness that gives rise to displeasure also gives rise to the feeling of pleasure. Experience of the sublime is an experience of a negative pleasure , p. On the other hand, displeasure of ugliness is the result of disharmony between the imagination and the faculty of understanding.
In this relation, there is no failure of the imagination, rather it is the case that sensible manifold successfully apprehended by the imagination conflicts with the understanding and its need to introduce order and unity in our experience of the world. Thus, in judgments of ugliness it is the form combination of sensible manifold of the object that is contrapurposive for the power of judgment.